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  1. Nickel JC et al. A real-life multicenter clinical practice study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravesical chondroitin sulphate for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. BJU International. Epub 3 September 2008.
  2. Nickel JC et al. Chondroitin sulfate is a promising therapy for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Abstract presented at NAUA October 2009.
  3. Data on file.
  4. Hauser P et al. Restoring barrier function to acid damaged bladder by intravesical chondroitin sulfate. J.Urol. 2009; 182: 2477-82.
  5. Personal communication (May 2009) with Dr RE Hurst, co-author of Hauser P et al. Restoring barrier function to acid-damaged bladder by intravesical chondroitin sulfate. J.Urol. 2009; 182: 2477-82.
  6. Hurst RE, Roy J and Parsons C. The role of Glycosaminoglycans in normal bladder physiology and the pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis. Interstitial Cystitis. 1997. Philadelphia. Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
  7. Hurst RE. A deficit of proteoglycans on the bladder uroepithelium in interstitial cystitis. European Urology Supplements. 2 (2003) 10-13.
  8. Rosenberg M, Newman D and Page S. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: Symptom recognition is key to early identification, treatment. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2007; 74 (3): S54-62.
  9. Kelada E and Jones A. Interstitial cystitis. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2007; 275:223-229.
  10. Hurst RE. Structure, function and pathology of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in the urinary tract. World Journal of Urology 1994; 12: 3-10.
  11. Hurst RE. & Zebrowski R. Identification of proteoglycans present at high density on bovine and human bladder luminal surface. The Journal of Urology. 1994; 152:1641-1644.
  12. Proteoglycans. School of Crystallography, University of London. www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk. Accessed 5th February 2009.
  13. Kyker K, Coffman J, Hurst RE. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder. BMC Urology 2005; 5:4.
  14. Cystistat Product Monograph.
  15. Gepan Instill Business Case. 04/2008.
  16. Nickel JC, Egerdie RB, Steinhoff G, Palmer B, Hanno P. A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel Group Pilot Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Intravesical Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate Versus Vehicle Control in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome.  J.Urology. 2010; 76 (4): 804-809.
  17. J. Curtis Nickel, Philip Hanno, Keshava Kumar, and Heather Thomas.  Second Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Evaluation of Effectiveness and Safety of Intravesical Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate Compared With Inactive Vehicle Control in Subjects With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.  Urology. 2012 .Jun;79(6):1220-4

  18. Ammarin Thakkinstian, PhD, J. Curtis Nickel MD, FRCSC.  Efficacy of intravesical chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of interstitial cystitis / bladder pain syndrome (IC/PBS): Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis approach.  CUAJ May-June 2013. Vol 7, Issues 5-6